- How Joan of Arc Turned the Tide in the Hundred Years’ War.
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Track My Order. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist. Ships in 15 business days. Link Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Industry Reviews Over the last decade or so, Schofield has output a significant and diverse body of research that has already influenced the next generation of archaeologists interested in the archaeology of recent conflict List of Figures p.
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Her claims that the divine voices she heard would lead France to victory made her one of the most celebrated figures of late medieval history. Read more about the history of the devil in the Middle Ages. Portrayed by her enemies as a heretic, a witch, and a madwoman, she was later pardoned and eventually recognized as a saint by the Catholic Church.
Today, she is a national hero of the French. Since the invasion of England by the French-speaking William the Conqueror in , the English kings who followed him had maintained a claim to certain French lands.
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But the English strength faltered, checked by the ravages of the Black Death in the s , the decline of Edward and his heir, and the rallying of French forces under their king Charles V. In Henry won the Battle of Agincourt over a much larger French force. Henry continued to win battles, and after a run of successes, he forced the French to recognize his heirs as successors to the French throne as one of the terms of the Treaty of Troyes in His son, Henry VI, would continue the fight for these lands.
From the age of 13, Joan claimed to have heard divine voices and seen visions of St. Michael, St. Catherine of Alexandria, and St. Margaret of Antioch.
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These divine messengers, she said, were urging her to go to the aid of the man who was the rightful king of France: Charles of Valois, son of Charles VI, whom the English had disinherited. Because Paris lay deep in English-held territory, Charles had been forced to set up a makeshift court at Chinon on the Loire River. In , Joan traveled there to explain her divine mission to Charles, but was turned away before she could meet with him. After much examination, she won over Charles and his followers.
In June French troops crushed the English at Patay, and in July Charles VII was crowned in the cathedral of Reims in the presence of the young warrior prophet who had predicted the event. But the tide soon turned against Joan of Arc. Instead of expelling the English from France, Joan and her army then suffered several military setbacks.
Suddenly, her claims appeared weak. How could an envoy of God fall so easily into enemy hands? The English and their allies among the French were in no doubt. Religious doubts about the sanctity of Joan of Arc blended seamlessly into high politics.
If the voices she heard were diabolic, then her whole cause, and the coronation of Charles VII itself, had been the work of the devil. The English brought their accusations against Joan, now imprisoned in Rouen, in January Some days later, when the trial opened, the Bishop of Beauvais, Pierre Cauchon, added the charge of witchcraft and declared that Joan was now also under suspicion of having cast spells and invoked demons. On February 21 Joan answered her charges for the first time before the tribunal. Her concise replies often disarmed the judges and aroused admiration from the public.
If she answered no, she knew she would be lying, while if she answered yes, she would be arrogantly placing herself beyond the authority of the church.