To bypass this problem, the team commandeered a memory chip on Mars Express to store raw data during short passes over intriguing areas. Between and , the spacecraft confirmed the existence of the bright reflections during 29 passes over the south polar region.
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Another clue comes from the permittivity of the reflecting material: its ability to store energy in an electric field. Water has a higher permittivity than rock and ice. Calculating permittivity requires knowing the signal power reflected by the bright patch, something the researchers could only estimate. But they find the permittivity of the patch to be higher than anywhere else on Mars—and comparable to the subglacial lakes on Earth.
Although the team cannot measure the thickness of the water layer, Orosei says it is much more than a thin film.
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Got a tip? How to contact the news team. Science Insider. This used to be a landfill created by the Toronto Harbour Commission in about I think about or so.
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All they used to do was put dirt over top of them and use them as part of the landfill. When they put the landfill in, the citizens of Toronto would come down and use it as a garbage dump. In your time working with the Port Authority, what incidents really stand out in your mind? We do a lot of dredging to make sure the navigable channels stay clear. We were dredging the Keating Channel which connects the Don River to the inner Toronto Harbour using a big bucket that goes in, brings soil up and then puts it into a barge. They pulled up the bucket, and at the end of it was a Porsche!
Just before we could take it over to the barge, the Porsche fell back into the water. We had to call the Toronto Police Marine Unit to pick it up. Many years ago, when I was a senior diver with the police department, we ran across what looked like a miniature locomotive. And we realized it was one of those trackless trains from the CNE, do you remember those ones when you were a kid? The little train you could jump on for free and go around the CNE?
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Well, somebody had stolen it in the mids in the middle of the night, got it all the way down to the east end of Toronto, and then shot it into the water. But when it was the old port area we used to try and get rid of criminal activity.
Certainly that is not an issue now. I would say in the last 15 years, with the improvement in vessels, life jackets and safety equipment, certainly it has taken a huge plunge. Is there anything going on in the harbour that you think is really unique or important? Well, last year we moved almost 1.
That is the equivalent of taking 37, semi trucks off the road.
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We also remove about million pounds of debris from the harbour each year. It was like the moon — there was nothing alive. And now there are all sorts of fish down there, and there are all sorts of habitats. It really has improved.
We do have swimming on the Island itself, on the beaches, and it certainly has improved vastly.